Essentials of Dentistry
Original Article

Computational Investigation of the Tip Effects of Various Root Canal Needles on Irrigation Performance


Department of Endodontics, İstanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, İstanbul, Turkey


Department of Mechanical Engineering, İstanbul Technical University, İstanbul, Turkey

Essentials of Dentistry 2022; 1: 30-37
DOI: 10.5152/EssentDent.2021.21007
Read: 768 Downloads: 177 Published: 06 August 2021

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of irrigation needles with various tip shapes on the flow inside the root canal and predict their irrigation capabilities based on Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations.

Methods: Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of 7 commonly used irrigation needle models performed, and their irrigation performances were evaluated based on apical pressure and shear stress. The working fluid representing the irrigant was water with constant thermophysical properties. Its flow was assumed to be laminar and steady at all inlet Reynolds numbers.

Results: The open-ended needles create maximum irrigant replacement toward the apex, among which the notched ones appear to be the least efficient. In contrast, the closed-ended needles show limited flow toward the apex and show lower apical pressure, which reduces the risk of apical extrusion. The apical pressure is found to be the highest for the open-ended needles with a blunt tip, followed by the open-ended, beveled needle. Lower apical pressures are observed with the GNC needle, which is a closed-ended and double side-vented irrigation needle. Among all configurations, the GNC needle outperforms others as it provides the lowest apical pressures but least irrigant penetration. On the other hand, open-ended, blunt needles showed the highest apical pressures associated with sufficient irrigant penetration.

Conclusion: The results showed that the needle tip design influences important parameters for the effectiveness and safety of the irrigation. Also, Computational Fluid Dynamics is a valuable tool in assessing the impact of needle tip designs on these parameters.

Cite this article as: Bulgu S, Yıldızeli A, Çadırcı S, Yıldırım S. Computational Investigation of the Tip Effects of Various Root Canal Needles on Irrigation Performance. Essent Dent. 1(1): 30-37.

EISSN 2791-9552